How to Calculate Rate of Return

If you’re thinking about making investments, you may want to calculate the rate of return. This can give you important information about how successful a particular investment is and make it easier to compare different options. A rate of return is the percentage change from an initial value to a final value over time. It can be positive or negative. […]

How to Calculate Standard Error in Excel

Excel has a number of mathematical functions that can help users analyze data. One of these is the standard error, which is an important statistic parameter for a sample. You can use this statistic to determine how well a sampling distribution reflects the true population mean. This is done by calculating the standard deviation and then dividing it by the […]

How to Calculate Square Yards

In the construction industry, square yards are frequently used to denote area. Carpet installers also use this unit to measure the amount of material they need to cover a space. The easiest way to calculate square yards is by using a simple formula: length x width. The formula will work regardless of whether the length and width are measured in […]

How to Calculate Total Revenue

Total revenue is a key business metric for evaluating and growing your business. It can also reveal a lot about your company. To calculate total revenue, you must know the number of units sold and their selling price. You also need to consider taxes and other expenses. Knowing this can help you plan for the future. Units Sold A business […]

How to Calculate P Value in Excel

P value is used in probability calculations and measures the strength of evidence against a null hypothesis. It can be expressed as a decimal or percentage depending on the situation. If you’re looking to determine the p value of your data, you can use Excel’s built-in methods or the Data Analysis Toolpak. Using the latter method, you’ll get all the […]

How to Calculate Pressure

When you’re working with a fluid or a gas, it’s important to know how to calculate pressure. There are several different units that can be used to measure pressure. The most common unit is the pascal (Pa), which is equal to N/m2 or kg/m2. You can also use pounds per square inch (psi) or lb/in2, and bar. Units There are […]

How to Calculate Formal Charge

Formal charge is a methodology that chemists use to approximate how electrons are distributed on an atom. It assumes that all atoms in a bond share electrons evenly. Calculating formal charge can be done in a few different ways. One way is via a mathematical formula, but it can also be done instinctively based on comparing structures. Valence electrons Formal […]

How to Calculate Excess Reserves

Excess reserves are any cash a bank holds in its vault or Fed account that is above what it is required by the Federal Reserve to be on hand. They act as a safety net during times of economic uncertainty and help banks resolve liquidity issues. There are two types of reserves that are required by the central bank – […]

How to Calculate Consumer Surplus

When calculating a product’s price, businesses need to consider consumer surplus. This figure can help them determine the optimal profit from a sale. Consumer surplus is the extra benefit a consumer receives over and above what they would normally pay for a good or service. It’s calculated using the marginal utility theory. Demand Curve The demand curve (D) shows the […]