What Is Another Name for a Condensation Reaction?
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What Is Another Name for a Condensation Reaction? Condensation reactions are also known by another name as dehydration synthesis reactions. By removing water, they combine molecules. Dehydration represents the loss of water, while synthesis describes creation. When glucose molecules associate to form starch, it is an instance of dehydration synthesis. A condensation reaction is any of a class of reactions in which two molecules combine, usually in the presence of a catalyst. This occurs when they associate with the elimination of water or some other simple molecule.
The combination of similar molecules is known as self-condensation. Aldehydes, esters, ketones, alkynes, and amines are among the natural organic compounds that join with each other and, except for amines, among themselves to form broader molecules. In organic synthesis, many of these molecules are useful intermediate compounds. Catalysts generally used in condensation reactions consist of acids, bases, complex metal ions, and cyanide ions.
Condensation Reactions or Dehydration Synthesis Reactions
In the condensation reaction, two molecules bind to form a single molecule. A small molecule, often water, is normally wiped out during a condensation reaction.
Amino Acids Tie Together To Form A Molecule Called A Dipeptide Amino acids are leady biological molecules which have an amine functional group on one end and a carboxylic acid functional group on the other end. When two amino acids associate in a condensation reaction, a covalent bond forms between the amine nitrogen of one amino acid and the carboxyl carbon of the 2nd amino acid. A molecule of water is then eliminated as a 2nd product.
In Other Words, We Can Understand As
In a condensation reaction, two molecules (functional groups) are attached covalently to a filler surface to form one single molecule with a loss of entropy.
An Example Of a Condensation Reaction Is Using A Series Of Isocyanates Compounds In The Surface Modification Of Graphene Oxide.
In the case of graphene, condensation occurs through two reactive oxygenated groups (hydroxyl and carboxyl functionalities) present on graphene sheets with isocyanate, diisocyanate, and amine compounds through an amidation reaction, leading to the formation of the amides and carbamate ester linkages. An example of a condensation reaction is using a series of isocyanates compounds in the surface modification of graphene oxide.
Aldol condensation occurs in aldehydes having α-hydrogen with a dilute base to give β–hydroxy aldehydes called aldols. This reaction is generally known as aldol condensation. If the condensation reaction occurs between two different carbonyl compounds it is called crossed aldol condensation.
Aldol Condensation can be explained as an organic reaction in which an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form β–hydroxy ketone or β-hydroxy aldehyde, followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone. Aldol Condensation plays a key role in organic synthesis, creating a way to form carbon-carbon bonds.
One of the normal examples for base-catalyzed aldol condensation is described below in which the catalyst normally used is hydroxide ion.
- In reverse hierarchy, The hydroxide ion deprotonates the aldehyde
- Enolate ion 1 attacks the unreacted aldehyde
- Alkoxide ion 2 is protonated
- A small amount of aldol is transformed into an enolate ion (4) due to the hydroxide ion.
- Here Enolate Ion (4) eliminates a hydroxide ion.
Crossed Aldol Condensation
The condensation reaction between two distinct molecules of an aldehyde or ketone in an aprotic solvent such as water or alcohol authorizes the crossed aldol reaction. When condensation occurs between two different carbonyl compounds, it is called crossed aldol condensation.
When both aldehydes have alpha hydrogens, both can form carbanions and can also work as carbanion acceptors. Hence a mixture of four products is developed which has a low synthetic value. If one of the aldehydes has no alpha hydrogen, it can only act as a carbanion acceptor.
In such a case, only two products are created. A common substrate for the crossed aldol reaction is an aromatic aldehyde, which has no alpha position. Furthermore, dehydration of the basic condensation product is rapid, which leads to the evolution of the α, β – unsaturated ketone, and prevents the retro-aldol reaction from taking place.
The Claisen condensation is a carbon-carbon bond generating reaction that arises between one ester and another carbonyl compound or two esters in the presence of a strong base, resulting in a β-keto ester or a β-diketone. It is named after Rainer Ludwig Claisen, who first disclosed his work on the reaction in 1887.
It is an organic chemical reaction that was created by William Henry Perkin, an English chemist scientist. This reaction provides an α,β -unsaturated aromatic acid. Perkin’s reaction mechanism consists of the reaction between aromatic aldehydes, the aliphatic acid anhydride, and the alkali salt of the acid to deliver cinamic acid derivatives.